With a cumulative score of 2.15, Croatia ranks number 3 among emerging markets and number 23 in the global ranking.
- Emerging markets
2.43 / 5
1.64 / 5
1.84 / 5
Net-zero goal and strategy
Croatia’s Low-Carbon Development Strategy lays out how emissions can be lowered from 1990 levels under three scenarios – a continuation of existing practices, and a ‘gradual’ and ‘strong’ transition. Under the gradual transition scenario, the country’s emissions are reduced by 33.5% by 2030 and 56.8% by 2050. In the strong transition scenario, emissions are lowered by 36.4% by 2030 and 73.1% by 2050. The strategy says that a zero-emissions scenario will be presented once the implications of the European Union’s (EU) climate neutrality goal become clear. As a member of the EU, Croatia shares the bloc’s ambition to reach net-zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2050, as laid out in the European Commission’s Green Deal.
Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC)
Croatia’s ‘nationally determined contribution’ (NDC) – meaning its plan to help achieve the goals of the Paris Agreement – is the same as that of the EU. The EU’s initial NDC committed to lower emissions by at least 40% by 2030 compared to 1990 levels. The bloc submitted an update to its NDC in December 2020, with an enhanced target of at least a 55% reduction in emissions by 2030.
Fossil fuel phase-out policy
During the COP26 climate meeting in November 2021, Croatia announced a 2033 target to phase-out of coal from electricity production
Croatia is aiming for renewables to account for 36.4% of gross final energy consumption by 2030, up from an estimated 20% in 2020. It also has a target for renewables to account for 63.8% of electricity consumption in 2030, versus 47% in 2020. Currently, around 7% of power is generated from biomass and waste, 8.1% from coal, 13% from wind, 27% from natural gas, and 44% from hydro.
The country launched its first ever renewables auction in 2020 and plans to hold a second auction in 2021. The Croatian Energy Market Operator (HROTE) intends to hold auctions for renewables at least once a year, and the duration of the potential power purchase agreements with HROTE is 14 years. HROTE conducts auctions for the allocation of market premiums and for the signing of the power purchase agreements (PPAs) with a guaranteed purchase price. Annual quotas for individual technologies should ensure market competition and the planned start of power production in new facilities.
Power prices and costs
Electricity prices for Croatian households has historically been among the lowest in the EU.
Electricity in Croatia can be traded in two types of wholesale markets: the Croatian power exchange (CROPEX) and also bilateral over-the-counter contracts. Most electricity is traded through the bilateral market.
In terms of the cost of renewables, the $1.55 million per megawatt capital expenditure for onshore wind projects recorded in 2017 falls well within BloombergNEF’s levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) range for Europe.
HROTE pays incentives to generate electricity from renewable energy sources. These payments are funded by a 1.36 euro cents (1.58 U.S. cents) per kilowatt-hour renewables incentive fee paid by all Croatian electricity consumers, and from the sale of electricity from renewable sources. There is a premium for projects larger than 500 kilowatts (kW) of installed power and an incentive through a guaranteed redemption price for projects up to 500kW. This refers to both a guaranteed reference price and a feed-in premium.
There are numerous privately-owned companies active in Croatia’s power generation market, but they are dwarfed by state-owned utility Hrvatska Elektroprivreda (HEP), whose market share was above 80% in 2018.
HOPS d.o.o. is the sole electricity transmission system operator. While HOPS is owned by HROTE, it has functioned as a separate entity since 2005.
Installed Capacity (in MW)
Electricity Generation (in GWh)
Which segments of the power sector are open to private participation?
Wholesale power market
Does the country have a wholesale power market?
Croatia’s battery electric vehicle (EV) fleet has been growing, particularly between 2017 and 2019, when the number of EVs jumped from 285 to 725.
The rising number of EVs comes despite there being no favorable electricity green tariff for EV charging and almost no charging points along the motorways. There are also no local grants for infrastructure or battery swapping stations.
However, Croatia does offer incentives to its citizens and companies for the purchase of EVs. These incentives cover up to 40% of the purchase price, or 665 to 9,297 euros ($768-10,738) depending on the vehicle type.
Fuel economy standards
Does the country have a fuel economy standard in place?
According to Croatia’s 2019 National Energy and Climate Plan, the country is seeking to boost the share of renewables in heating and cooling energy consumption from 33.3% in 2020 to 36.6% in 2030. However, EU member states are supposed to aim to increase the share of renewables in heating and cooling by between 1.1-1.3 percentage points each year until 2030, meaning that Croatia is falling short of the bloc’s target.
The country is aiming to decarbonize and improve the energy efficiency of its national building stock through the renovation of both residential and non-residential buildings. It is looking to increase its annual buildings renovation rate to 3% by 2030 and 4% by 2050, from 0.7% at present. By the middle of the century, all new construction will be for nearly zero energy standard buildings.
Energy performance standards
Are there minimum energy performance standards for buildings?
Energy efficiency plan
Does the country have a national energy efficiency plan?
The Environmental Protection and Energy Efficiency Fund (FZOEU) offers grants to support the energy renovation of family houses. The budget for the program is about 27 million euros. Individual applicants can receive a maximum of 27,000 euros to cover up to 60% of the costs of improving thermal insulation in family houses. This includes all necessary equipment and works for the insulation of external walls, ceilings, floors, and roofs, as well as for waterproofing and replacing of elements of the roof frame.
The FZOEU also provides co-financing for standalone houses to install renewable energy systems. The total co-financing budget is 12 million Croatian kuna ($1.85 million)