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Croatia

With a power score of 2.38, Croatia ranks number 5 among emerging markets and number 17 in the global ranking.

  • Emerging markets
  • Europe

2.38 / 5

Power score


 

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Low-carbon strategy

Net-zero goal and strategy

Croatia’s Low-Carbon Development Strategy published in 2021 lays out how emissions can be lowered from 1990 levels under three scenarios – a continuation of existing practices, and a “gradual” and “strong” transition.

Under the gradual transition scenario, the country’s emissions would be reduced by 33.5% by 2030 and 56.8% by 2050. In the strong transition scenario, emissions would be lowered by 36.7% by 2030 and 73.1% by 2050. The strategy says that a net-zero emissions scenario will be presented once the implications of the European Union’s (EU) climate neutrality goal become clear. As a member of the EU, Croatia shares the bloc’s ambition to reach net-zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2050.

Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC)

EU members submit a joint Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), outlining the bloc’s plan to help achieve the goals of the Paris Agreement. The EU’s initial NDC committed to lower emissions by at least 40% by 2030 compared to 1990 levels. The updated NDC submitted in December 2020 increased the ambition of this target to at least a 55% reduction by 2030.

Fossil fuel phase-out policy

During the COP26 climate summit in November 2021, Croatia announced a 2033 target to phase-out of coal from electricity production.

Power

Power policy

Croatia is aiming for renewables to account for 36.4% of gross final energy consumption by 2030, up from an estimated 20% in 2020. It also has a target for renewables to account for 63.8% of electricity consumption in 2030, versus 47% in 2020. Currently, around 6% of power is generated from biomass and waste, 10% from coal, 14% from wind, 21% from natural gas, and 48% from hydro.

The country launched its first ever renewables auction in 2020, and a 638-megawatt auction was held in June 2022. The Croatian Energy Market Operator, known as HROTE, intends to hold auctions for renewables at least once a year, and the duration of the potential power purchase agreements with HROTE is 14 years. HROTE conducts auctions for the allocation of market premiums and for the signing of power purchase agreements with a guaranteed purchase price. Annual quotas for individual technologies should ensure market competition and the planned start of power production in new facilities.

Power policies

Renewable energy auction
Feed-in Tariff
Import tax incentives
Net Metering
Renewable energy target
VAT incentives

Power prices and costs

Electricity prices for Croatian households have historically been among the lowest in the EU.

Electricity in Croatia can be traded in two types of wholesale markets: the Croatian power exchange (CROPEX) and also bilateral over-the-counter contracts. Most electricity is traded through the bilateral market.

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Power market

HROTE pays incentives to generate electricity from renewable energy sources. These payments are funded by a 1.36 euro cents per kilowatt-hour (1.32 US cents/kWh) renewables incentive fee paid by all Croatian electricity consumers. There is a premium for projects larger than 500 kilowatts (kW) of installed power and an incentive through a guaranteed redemption price for projects up to 500kW. This refers to both a guaranteed reference price and a feed-in premium.

There are numerous privately owned companies active in Croatia’s power generation market, but they are dwarfed by state-owned utility Hrvatska Elektroprivreda, known as HEP.

HOPS is the sole electricity transmission system operator. While it is owned by HROTE, it has functioned as a separate entity since 2005.

Installed Capacity (in MW)

2012201420162018202001K2K3K4K5K MW

Electricity Generation (in GWh)

2012201420162018202005K10K15K GWh
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Utility privatisation

Which segments of the power sector are open to private participation?


Generation
Transmission
Retail

Wholesale power market

Does the country have a wholesale power market?


Available
Not available

Doing business and barriers

The Croatian government does not plan to phase out a number of specific fossil-fuel subsidies, such as excise duty exemptions, in order to protect the competitiveness or economic viability of various sectors. There is no national taxation to increase the cost of fossil fuels used in thermal power plants, but the country participates in the EU’s carbon market, known as the Emissions Trading System.

Currency of PPAs

Are PPAs (eg. corporate PPAs and all other types) signed in or indexed to U.S. Dollars or Euro?


Available
Not available

Bilateral power contracts

Can a C&I (Commercial and Industrial) customer sign a long-term contract (PPA) for clean energy?


Available
Not available

Fossil fuel price distortions - Subsidies

Does the government influence the wholesale price of fossil fuel (used by thermal power plants) down through subsidies?


Available
Not available

Fossil fuel price distortions - Taxes

Does the government influence the wholesale price of fossil fuel (used by thermal power plants) up through taxes or carbon prices?


Available
Not available

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from BNEF

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Climatescope 2022 print report cover

Climatescope 2022

Power Transition Factbook

This marks the 11th anniversary of Climatescope, BNEF’s annual assessment of energy transition opportunities. The project has been expanded to include activity not just in clean power but in the decarbonization of the transportation and buildings sectors. The Power Transition Factbook is the first of three reports that composes BNEF's Energy Transition Factbook. The transport and buildings sectors reports are coming soon.

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